New York Times has an interesting article on how urban policy in some European cities is to irk drivers!
European cities are doing the opposite: creating environments openly hostile to cars. The methods vary, but the mission is clear — to make car use expensive and just plain miserable enough to tilt drivers toward more environmentally friendly modes of transportation.
One strategy is intentionally making it harder and more costly to park.
It’s been calculated that a person using a car takes up 115 cubic meters (roughly 4,000 cubic feet) of urban space in Zurich while a pedestrian took three. So on the basis that it’s not really fair to everyone else if you take the car it is getting harder and harder to park.
In Copenhagen, at the European Environment Agency, the office building ha more than 150 spaces for bicycles and only one for a car, to accommodate a disabled person.
Carless households have increased from 40 to 45 percent in the last decade, and car owners use their vehicles less.
It does help to have very good public transportation!